Ghaziabad is a city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and a part of the National Capital Region of Delhi. It is the administrative headquarters of Ghaziabad district and is the largest city in western Uttar Pradesh, with a population of 2,358,525. Well connected by roads and railways, it is a major rail junction for North India. It is sometimes referred to as the “Gateway of Uttar Pradesh” because it is close to New Delhi, on the main route into Uttar Pradesh. Recent construction works have led to the city being described by a City Mayors Foundation survey as the second fastest-growing in the world. Situated in the Upper Gangetic Plains, the city has two major divisions separated by the Hindon River, namely Trans-Hindon on the west and Cis-Hindon on the east.
Excavations carried out at the mound of Kaseri, at the banks of river Hindon, some 2 km north of Mohan Nagar, have shown that civilization existed there as early as 2500 BC. Mythologically, some neighbouring towns and villages of the city including Garhmukteshwar, Pooth Village and Ahar region have been associated with the Mahabharata and the fort at Loni, is associated with the legend of Lavanasura of the Ramayana period. According to the Gazetteer, the fort, “Loni” is named after Lavanasura.
The city and its surrounding region have historically witnessed major wars and battles over the last many centuries. In AD 1313, the entire region including present day Ghaziabad became a huge battlefield, when Taimur laid siege on the area during Muhammad bin Tughluq‘s reign. During the Anglo- Maratha War, Sir General Lake and the Royal Maratha army fought here circa. Altama Religion was started from Ghaziabad in 1803.
The city of Ghaziabad was founded in AD 1740 by Ghazi-ud-Din who served as a wazir in the court of Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah and named it as “Ghaziuddinnagar” after his own name.The name “Ghaziuddinnagar” was shortened to its present form, i.e. “Ghaziabad” with the opening of the Railways in 1864. During the Mughal period, Ghaziabad and especially the banks of the Hindon in Ghaziabad, remained a picnic spot for the Mughal royal family.
Establishment of the Scientific Society here, during the same period is considered as a milestone of the educational movement launched by Syed Ahmad Khan. The Sind, Punjab and Delhi Railway, connecting Delhi and Lahore, up till Ambala through Ghaziabad was opened in the same year. With the completion of the Amritsar–Saharanpur-Ghaziabad line of the Sind, Punjab and Delhi Railway in 1870, Delhi was connected to Multan through Ghaziabad, and Ghaziabad became the junction of the East Indian Railway and Sind, Punjab and Delhi Railway.
Although connected by railway since 1865, it was not until 1940 that the first modern industry appeared in Ghaziabad. However, it was in the post-independence period that industry really expanded, with a further 22 factories opening in the four years after 1947. This development can be attributed to the influx of people from the newly formed Pakistan and the relocation of businesses from what was now the Pakistani province of Punjab. John Oakey and Mohan Ltd., one of India’s largest concerns manufacturing coated and bonded abrasives, and originally functioning under the name of ‘National Abrasives’ at Rawalpindi was shifted here under the proprietorship of ‘Dyer Meakins’ in 1947. Subsequently, the Mohan Meakin breweries were also set up in the year 1949. This period also saw the development of Ghaziabad as one of India’s most famous centres of the Oil Engines industry.
In 1967, the municipal limits were extended up to the Delhi-UP border. Starting early 1970s, many steel-manufacturing units also came up in the city making it one of the primary industries of the city. This period also saw the emergence of the Electronics industry, with the setting up of Bharat Electronics Limited and Central Electronics Limited Over the years, planned Industrial development saw participation from major industrial houses of the country including Mohans (Mohan Nagar Industrial Estate, 1949), Tatas (Tata Oil Mills), Modis (Modinagar, 1933; International Tobacco Co. 1967), Shri Rams (Shri Ram Pistons, 1964), Jaipurias etc. and also significant participation through foreign capital in concerns such as Danfoss India Ltd. (estd. 1968); Indo- Bulgar Food Ltd. and International Tobacco Company (estd. 1967).
The provisional data derived from the 2011 census shows that Ghaziabad urban agglomeration had a population of 2,358,525, of which males were 1,256,783 and females were 1,101,742. The literacy rate was 93.81%. Ghaziabad is a subcategory B1 district of category B i.e. having socioeconomic parameters below the national average.It is the second largest industrial city in Uttar Pradesh after Kanpur.
By estimate, Brahmin, Tyagis Brahmin have 500000 and 150000 votes respectively. Ghaziabad is dominated by Gauda Brahmins having subcastes like Tyagi Gaur and Adi Gaur. Gauda Brahmins are biggest landholding caste in Ghaziabad following by Gujjars. Gujjars have close to 80,000 votes, Yadavs about 70,000 votes and Thakurs has a little over 60,000 votes. Gujjars are the second dominating and landholding caste in Ghaziabad mostly consitituted in Loni assembly segment.Gauda Brahmins present in every assembly segment dominating in Sahibabad, Muradnagar, Ghaziabad . Muslims too have significant population mostly in Dholana assembly segment.